Thursday, May 21, 2020
The story, A Soldiers Home, is about a man in conflict with the past and present events in his life. The young manÃ¢â¬â¢s name is Harold Krebs. He recently returned from World War 1 to find everything almost exactly the same as when he left. He moved back into his parents house, where he found the same car sitting in the same drive way. He also found the girls looking the same, except now they all had short hair. When he returned to his home town in Oklahoma the hysteria of the soldiers coming home was all over. The other soldiers had come home years before Krebs had so everyone was over the excitement. When he first returned home he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to talk about the war at all. Then, when he suddenly felt the urge and need to talk about it no oneÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦By reading the story we know Harold no longer feels at home anymore. He has been traumatized by life and death situations that his parents simply do not understand. We know that he has changed because he f eels he no longer fits in. In the story, we find out Krebs attended a Methodist college in Kansas. He was not out of place during that time. Hemingway says, Ã¢â¬Å"There is a picture which shows him among his fraternity brothers, all of them wearing exactly the same height and style collar.Ã¢â¬ (185) Hemingway is telling us that by stating that Harold once fit in the town. He fit in with his friends. He is meaning in the story that most soldiers are traumatized by the war, and when they return they are different people. Hemingway gets his across of soldiers before and after in the story by setting and characters. The setting is in Oklahoma. It shows that Harold was in World War 1 in Germany, and when he was in college in Kansas. By him showing us the different settings we can see how Harold acted in the different places. The setting helps the reader understand what HemingwayÃ¢â¬â¢s point is. The characters in this story help the reader understand the point as well. The protagon ist character Harold Krebs went off to fight and came back and felt way out of place. The antagonist character his mother, is the one who doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t understand what he has been through, but pushes him to settle down and get aShow MoreRelatedSoldiers Home By Ernest Hemingway Analysis785 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesyears in the frontline of World War 1 to a boring everyday life in a small Oklahoma town can be challenging. Ernest HemingwayÃ¢â¬â¢s character, Krebs, has a more difficult time adjusting to home life than most of the other soldiers who had returned from the war. The other men from the town who had been drafted were all welcomed respectably on their return. Krebs on the other hand, returned to his home in Oklahoma years after the war was over. When he returned, the greeting of heroes was already over. He expectedRead MoreAnalysis of Literary Devices in Soldiers Home Essay951 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"SoldierÃ¢â¬â¢s Home by Ernest Hemingway Ernest Hemingway Ã¢â¬Å"SoldierÃ¢â¬â¢s Home is an outstanding short story that shows the tragic impact of war on the life of a young soldier who returns home. The story paints a vibrant picture of a soldierÃ¢â¬â¢s life after coming back from a shocking experience. Hemingway shows impacts of war on a soldier with the main character being Harold Krebs, who faces hostility in his hometown after his return from fighting in the war. The main character in the story is Kreb withRead MoreA Soldiers Home Setting Analysis Essay examples707 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesOctober 2012 A SoldierÃ¢â¬â¢s Home: Setting Analysis In Ernest HemingwayÃ¢â¬â¢s short story Ã¢â¬Å"A SoldierÃ¢â¬â¢s HomeÃ¢â¬ , Krebs, a soldier, returns to his hometown from fighting in World War I. As indicated throughout the story, Ã¢â¬Å"homeÃ¢â¬ for Krebs is not unlike the war front: confusing, complicated, and restless. Hemingway uses the setting in Kansas, during World War I, to convey Krebs post-war life in comparison to his pre-war. The title Ã¢â¬Å"Soldiers HomeÃ¢â¬ reveals the question; where is the soldierÃ¢â¬â¢s home? In the shortRead More Comparing Loss of Self in Soldiers Home, Pauls Case, and Bartleby1442 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesof Self in Hemingways Soldiers Home, Cathers Pauls Case, and Melvilles Bartleby the ScrivenerÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Hemingways Soldiers Home, Cathers Pauls Case, and Melvilles Bartleby the Scrivener all present a loss of self. These stories prove that there is a fine line between finding ones self and losing ones self. I believe this loss can occur at any age or station of life. This idea is seen in each storys main character. Hemingways Soldiers Home depicts a young man in his earlyRead MoreLiterary Analysis of a Very Short Story2462 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesA very short story by Ernest Hemingway. Title: A very short story Author: Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961). Source: CAPPELEN DAMM AS, Oslo 2008 Ã¢â¬â Access to English literature, VG3. Anthony, Burgess, Mikkelsen amp; SÃ ¸rhus. Chapter 1, page 23-24. Setting. A lot of geographic places are mentioned in the short story, as the characters move around, however the most important part of the story is set to Padua, in northern Italy. The story is about an Italian woman, Luz, and an American
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Bullying and victimization in United States schools has just recently begun to be studied(Milsom Gallo, 2006). Many schools realizing the impact that bullying has on children are quick advocate anti-bullying programs and punish bullies, however victims of bullies are usally given no emotional support. Research on bullying reveals that there are both immediate and future consequences for the targets of bullying (Gottheil and Dubow, 2001). Students are more likely to suffer from academic problems, absenteeism, loneliness and loss of friends especially when the bullying behavior is severe and prolonged (Robert Coursol, 1996). Children who are targets of aggression are also more likely to be depressed and develop low self-esteem (GottheilÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Improving social skills with these students can decrease a victimÃ¢â¬â¢s chances of being bullied. Students can learn to better develop relationship with other peers, which may decrease the likelihood that bullies targe t them. Specific social skills to target can include friendship skills, how to approach a group of people and how to develop empathy. In addition it would also be beneficial to teach students effective coping skills in the event that they are bullied (Kaiser Rasminsky, 2003). Coping skills can include identifying support in time of difficulty such as people to talk to and locating a safe area within the school. Having stated the the goals of the group, I believe this group would be suitable to middle school boys and girls, both of which can experience bullying. In order to have students join the group, I will receive referrals from teachers about who could benefit from a group for victims of bullying and also student referrals from the posters that will hang in the hallways and in bathrooms. The poster (Appendix B) that I designed is discrete but describes enough information that would gain the attention of the target population. I purposely did not advertise specific information a bout when and where the group will take place because of the sensitivity of the topic. This way there is lessShow MoreRelatedBullying Is A Social Problem For Decades Essay1224 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesBullying has been a social problem for decades. Bullying started out with name calling, but today bulling comes in different forms. You find bullying in schools, texts, and social media to name a few. The following information provided in this research paper discusses the history of bullying and how the history has shaped bullying today. The paper will provide informative background information about bullying and the definition of bullying. This paper will discuss the roles and skills of the humanRead MoreBullying Interventions That Support Exceptional Education Students914 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesexist in the school system today is bullying. This type of misbehavior can cause the school climate to be unconducive to learning. Bullying can also have a negative effect on not just the regula r student, but the exceptional education student as well. Because of the growing epidemic (trend) of bullying, it is a need to further research the effects that bullying has on the special education student. These facts lead to the proposed research topic, Ã¢â¬Å"Bullying Interventions that support exceptionalRead MoreCross Sectional Research Proposal913 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesTo attain a satisfactory response rate from the study sample, it is proposed that a correlational, cross-sectional, quantitative study utilizing a web-based survey be employed. Although cross-sectional research does not permit distinction between cause and effect, it will aid in the clarification of the prevalence of traditional bullying and cyberbullying and explore the relationship between the variables (Mann, 2003). The nature of the study may appear simple, but it has the potential to build uponRead MoreWorkplace Bullying And Its Impact On The Nursing Profession1421 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWorkplace bullyin g is a growing problem in the American workplace and the Nursing Profession no exception. Addressing workplace bullying and its impact on the nursing profession is paramount to upholding patient safety and decreasing nursing attrition rates. Defining the problem is the first step in addressing it. In the past, workplace bullying was referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"Nurses eating their young.Ã¢â¬ There are many names for the various levels of workplace bullying like horizontal and lateral violenceRead MoreBullying Is The Lack Of Consensus Among Employers939 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesgreatest challenges to understanding and overcoming the phenomenon of workplace bullying is the lack of consensus among employers, researchers, and legislators as to what defines workplace bullying. Definitions of the phenomena overlap with some definitions being described as too broad or too narrow. Some complain that definitions are not precise enough or lack the span necessary to include all forms of workpla ce bullying. One reason there are so many definitions is because there are many componentsRead MoreWhy Do Cyber Bullying Laws Need to Be Enforced?841 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWhy do Cyber Bullying Laws Need to be Enforced? Several middle school students in western New York created a Facebook event invitation Oct. 21, and they invited 60 of their friends to participate in a plan to torment the sixth-grader the next day. As the result, 10 accepted the invitation and some of the students posted offensive comments; one even proposed to kill the boy. When the mother of the proposed victim found out about that, she contacted to school officials. This is common news for manyRead MoreNegative And Negative Impacts Of Bullying Essay951 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesnature of bullying presents some challenges to accurately determining either its prevalence or severity. Both the positive and negative social interactions of school aged children may be misinterpreted by peers or by education professionals. Additionally, victims and perpetrators of bullying may be less likely to provide truthful responses to research inquiries out of fear of retaliation from peers or school personnel. In spite of these challenges, numerous recent studies on bullying have producedRead MoreThe Effects Of School Bullying On Students And The Climate Of A School System891 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesImpact The influence of school bullying is not as one dimensional as some have thought, and recent studies have examined this issue from the angles of student perception as well as socio-cultural perspectives (Espelage et al., 2014). Bullying is a dynamic issue with the capability to impact schools in numerous areas. Researchers typically categorize the negative effects of school bullying in terms of short and long term consequences and in terms of its impact on individual students and the climateRead MoreThesis Statement . The Act Of Suicide Effects Many Individuals1528 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMany individuals look to the personal causes and effects of suicide; however, we need look beyond that and view what is occurring socially. Social characteristics are suggested to be the causes of societyÃ¢â¬â¢s suicide rates (Tartaro, 413). Durkheim proposed that Ã¢â¬Å"the societal rate of suicide might be explained by social factors, such as marriage, divorce, and birth ratesÃ¢â¬ (Tartaro, 413 ). In addition, individuals who are bullied show greater stages of depression and indications of suicide (Turner, 1)Read MoreThe Importance of Understanding Bullying1279 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesBullying has been an ongoing problem that is detrimental to not only the bully but most especially the victim. Multiple negative effects arise from participating in bullying activity. Bullying is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"unwanted, aggressive behavior among school aged children that involves a real or perceived power imbalance. The behavior is repeated, or has the potential to be repeated, over time (ED et al., 2014).Ã¢â¬ Although there is no direct solution to this problem, there are ways to reduce bullying
COGNITIVE STUDIES AS THE DIRECTION OF MODERN LINGUISTICS At the end of the 20th century linguistics applied to anthropocentric paradigm of knowledge including among other things presentation about the human factor in the language [4, 2001:15]. The cognitive linguistics is the study of how the person operates the symbols, while coming to understanding the world and themselves in the world, the subject matter of which is the human mind, the thinking and the mental processes and conditions [11, 2005: 8]. The processes associated with knowledge and information are called cognitive ones. We will write a custom essay sample on Cognitive Studies as the Direction of Modern Linguistics or any similar topic only for you Order Now Their synonyms are also words Ã «intellectualÃ », Ã «mentalÃ », Ã «and rationalÃ ». Cognitive aspect is the basic concept of cognitive linguistics. It is obvious that in the complex of human sciences the relations between language and other human activities are closely interwoven with each other. Languages give cognitive scientists the key to understand human behavior even in the greater degree, than the culture and society [6, 1997:21]. In the 70-80th of the last century mainly lexico-grammatical and thematic groups of words were studied for identifying general and specific characteristics in a lexical system of language. Today the cognitive research is aimed at expansion of the Humanities [2, 2005: 28]. It is the question of great importance for scientists to find out the very existence of the words in the mental lexicon of individuals. Scientists consider the word to be a unit of knowledge, phenomenon or process meant by it, and also the knowledge of unit position in the system of language, where it is associated with other units of the same system [6, 1997: 306-307]. There are many definitions of concepts, as the term Ã «conceptÃ » is currently one of the most popular in a Russian science. It is not only about linguistics, the concept is used in perceptual and cognitive psychology, and lingvo-cultural science, sociology, and many other sciences. The concept is a multifaceted term, that can be considered as the storage of cultural values, and as a unit which the background for the perspective is the cultural environment surrounding the person. According to Professor V. A. Maslova there are 3 approaches to the conceptÃ¢â¬â¢s definition: 1. The first approach pays great attention to cultural aspect Ã¢â¬â when the entire culture is understood as a set of concepts and relations between them. Concepts are like clots of cultural environment in the personÃ¢â¬â¢s consciousness. 2. The second approach defines the semantics of linguistic sign as the only means of concept formation. 3. Representatives of the third approach believe the concept to be a combination of word meanings from personal, and national person experience, i. e. the concept is the mediator between words and reality. Concepts are universal [11, 2005: 32]. E. S. Kubryakova considers concept as the operational memory unit, mental lexicon, the conceptual system and the language of brain, the whole picture of the world, the quantum of knowledge [7, 1996: 90]. Structure of the concept, according to Pr. Stepanov consists of 3 layers: basic sign, optional and inner form, usually not realized. The structure of the concept can be represented in the circle form, in the center of which lies the main concept, the core of concept, and on the periphery is everything that are brought by culture, traditions, national, and personal experience [11, 2005:42]. Each concept includes evaluation, personal attitude towards an object. The same concepts can cause various associations in the different recipients [3, 2006: 24]. Cognitive linguistics is aimed at modeling the picture of the world. The concept itself is an element of the picture of the world, when the picture of the world is one of fundamental notions; it is a model of the world, which is formed as the result of human interaction [11, 2005:47]. Concepts can be classified according to different grounds. They can form emotional, educational, and other conceptual spheres. Concepts of objects and movements with the concepts of space are included in the list of Ã «primaryÃ » concepts defining conceptual system of the human being. Space is one of the main forms of categories of existence, reflecting the extent, the position, and the location of objects in a world continuum. As a consequence, the space belongs to the basic categories of thinking, and causes strong interest for scientists. The movement is a form of life and the factor of human development. The concept of movement Ã¢â¬â is a complex phenomenon, and is associated with the characteristics like the starting point of movement, the last point of movement, way of movement, the environment in which the action takes place, its orientation, move pace, and character of action [8, 2004: 10]. Identifying the sources of phraseological unitÃ¢â¬â¢s origin we share the opinion of N. N. Amosova, who considers it to be the speech situation in which the original word is used in a phraseological meaning [1, 1963:65]. Each phrasal unit initially was the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s formation, and at first was used in a single context. The verbal complex is to pass several stages before becoming a phraseological unit. Potential phrasal unit is a speech phenomenon. When words complex are used in countless contexts, they gradually acquire elements of stability, and form phrases. Actually it is impossible to ascertain the Ã «forthcomingÃ » of phrases [10, 1996: 158]. We can assume that each word being born in someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s speech gets new meanings in the course of its further usage. The important feature of obtaining new values is the degree of abstraction [13, 2001: 67]. A. M. Melerovich points out abstraction from lexical and grammatical meanings. She distinguishes four levels of abstraction: highest, high, medium, and low one. 1. The highest level of abstraction is observed in phraseological fusions, and in phraseological intensifiers. These phrases are completely abstracted from the literal meanings. . At the high level of abstraction phrasal units have all kinds of abstraction except grammatical one. 3. The average level of abstraction is observed in phrases with partially rethought meanings, i. e. , where one component is used literally, and the other one is used in figurative sense. 4. The low level of abstraction is characterized by the fact that all components are used in the literal senses. The structure of abstraction in this case is so-called Ã «colorless abstractionÃ » [14, 1959:171]. Thus, the phraseology reflects complex of culture and psychology of the people; it is a unique method of thinking. However, for each language the selection of priority wordÃ¢â¬â¢s meanings depends on cultural development. Presence of a certain motivation, Ã «which is directly linked with peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s outlookÃ » proves that idioms have cultural and ethnic connotation. The study of phrases gives the key to understanding of language picture of the world [16, 1996: 214] Literature 1. Amosova N. N. The basics of English phraseology/L. , 1963 2. Karasik V. I. Ethnospecific concepts. Other mentality/Moscow, 2005. 3. Kamishnikov ?. ?. Conceptual sphere/Taganrog, 2006. 4. Kravchenko ?. ?. About the question of modern linguistic cultural scienceÃ¢â¬â¢s origin /Taganrog, 2001. 5. Kubryakova ?. S. Cognitive features of motion verbs. Logical analyses of language/Moscow, 1992. 6. Kubryakova ?. S. Parts of speech from a cognitive point of view/Moscow, 1997. 7. Kubryakova ?. S. , Demyakov V. Z. , Pankrats U. Z. , Lusina L. G. Concise dictionary of cognitive terms /Moscow, 1996. 8. Kubryakova ?. S. Language and knowledge: On the way of language knowledge acquiring: ? : Parts of speech from a cognitive point of view/Moscow, 2004. 9. Kunin A. V. English-Russian dictionary of phrasal units/Moscow, 1984. 0. Kunin A. V. The course of modern English phraseology/Moscow, 1996. 11. Maslova V. A. Cognitive linguistics/Minsk, 2005. 12. Melerovich A. M. The problem of semantic analyses of phrases in Russian/ Yaroslavl, 1979 13. Polikarpov ?. ?. Reflection of historical events by phraseological fund of modern English language/Kaluga, 1998. 14. Smith L. P. Phraseology of English/Moscow, 1959. 15. Stepanov U. S. Constants. Dictionary of the Russian culture. Experience of research/Moscow, 1997. 16. Teliya V. N. Russian phraseology. Semantic, pragmatical and lingvo-cultural aspects / Moscow, 1996. How to cite Cognitive Studies as the Direction of Modern Linguistics, Essay examples
Saturday, April 25, 2020
Sooner or later, One has to take sides if one is to remain human.Ã Essay If taking sides means becoming emotionally involved in human conflicts and being prepared to suffer, then The Quiet American can be read as an argument for the necessity of becoming involved. Fowler, the character who suffers from the dilemma of whether or not to take sides, manages to remain detached for a long period, yet he is forced out of his inertia when events become too important for him to ignore and he realizes that inaction also has consequences.Both Mr Heng and Captain Trouin tell Fowler that he cannot avoid becoming involved, in two short but key scenes near the end of the text. When Fowler travels north to report on the war and recover from his loss of Phuong, the captain responds to Fowlers usual statement of non-engagement with, One day something will happen. You will take a side and We all get involved in a moment of emotion and then we cannot get out. This scene anticipates Fowlers decision to become involved in both the war and in life when he resolves that Pyle ha s got to be stopped. Trouin refers specifically to emotion as the trigger for involvement and Heng expands on this when he makes the statement quoted in the essay question. These characters seem to be arguing that emotional engagements part of being human, suggesting that Fowler has become so removed from his own feelings that he is at risk of becoming less human, a kind of empty shell of a man.The novels use of flashback to reveal the reasons surrounding Pyles death also serves to show the reader how it is that, although Fowler and Phuongs situation has returned to normal by the end of the text, in fact things are no longer the way they were. In the opening chapter when we learn of Pyles death, Fowler appears to be struggling with feelings of guilt, pain and anger Am I the only one who really cared for Pyle? Despite Fowlers stated desire to have things back to the way they were, at his last meeting with Pyle, I wanted him to go away quickly and die. Then I could start life again at the point before he came in. In fact it does not work out this way, and Fowler learns that his decision to get involved has caused a change in him. His final reaction is ambiguous How I wished there existed someone to who I could say that I was sorry and could be read referring to his recognition of the sacrifices made in the name of remaining human almost a form of regret at having acted at all.The key term engage recurs throughout the book, highlighting the importance of the issue of involvement. As a reporter, Fowler is convinced that he must remain objective and he continually tells people that he does takes sides in the war. Even seeing atrocities committed by the Viet Minh, such as the dead bodies in the canal at Phat Diem, disturbs him but does not sway his resolve to remain detached and thereby avoid taking blame. When Fowler and Pyle spend the night in the watchtower, Fowler appears to argue that he supports the Vietnamese and is against Western interference, but the h e stops himself by saying, I dont know what Im talking politics forIm not engage Pyles reply, arent you?, shows us that perhaps Fowler does not quite understand how involved he is already, despite his denials. He starts to realize this when he reads Helens letter and sees the pain he has caused her by opening up old wounds: I thought, what a mess you make behind the scenes On the evening of Pyles death, Fowler tries to show Pyle that he has become involved: Theres always a point of changesome moment of emotion Although Pyle cannot recognize it, we know that Fowler has committed himself to action in the name of what he feels is morally right.Fowler eventually recognizes that he must act in order to stay human because he is at risk of causing trouble even while he maintains a neutral stance. It therefore appears preferable to act in a positive manner, trying to achieve good through what one is doing, than by unintentionally causing suffering, as he has done to his wife in the past. Hi s ambiguous feelings about his actions show that he finally accepts becoming human again through suffering.
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Memory in relation to Jordan, Mary Ellens Balanda My Year in Arnhem Land Balanda: My Year in Arnhem Land is Jordan Mary EllenÃ¢â¬â¢s personal reflections about her experiences back in Arnhem Land, a region in northern Australia that is inhabited by Aborigines. As such, the book assumes a more personal tone and the author confesses that any lack of objectivity is deliberate.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Memory in relation to Jordan, Mary EllenÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Balanda: My Year in Arnhem LandÃ¢â¬ specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Within this book the author selectively chooses what to write about her past, what it was to live among the Balandas in Maningrida, her transformation and lesson learnt. Since this book is about the author past, the author has to rely heavily on her memory. She has to recall what happened and put it in the context of her story. As such, Balanda: My Year in Arnhem Land is a splendid exhibition of the power of writing memory. In this story, the author uses the power of memory to reveal to the reader not only her past experiences, but also make the reader to live through those experiences. Memory works in different ways bringing in different results in JordanÃ¢â¬â¢s work. Not only does the author use memory to imaginatively recreate and reconstruct her past, but also as a device through which the past is brought to bear on the present. Furthermore, JordanÃ¢â¬â¢s memory acts as a reservoir, a rich source of historical facts from where the reader learns a lot about the history of the Aborigine as well as the relationship between Aborigines and the Balandas. Jordan tries her best to put pieces of facts together to compose the whole story. Despite the fact that the story is based on factual information, it has a fictional ring to it. The fact that this story is told from first person point of view means that it is subjective and as such not far from fiction. As such memory bears strongly on JordanÃ¢â¬â¢s work. Balanda: My Year in Arnhem Land is a very useful personal account that presents memory as a tool that imaginatively reconstructs JordanÃ¢â¬â¢s past experiences. The story reconstructs JordanÃ¢â¬â¢s amazing and unanticipated discovery of long running intercultural differences between the Balandas and the Aboriginals. Even though this story is a recreation, Jordan tries her best to make her recreation as truthful and factual as possible. Jordan remarks that this story is about her and the time she spent living and working in Maningrida and that the story is a personal account of her experiences in Arnhem Land (2005, p. vii). This means that the story is not about facts that have been gathered and proven empirically.Advertising Looking for essay on american literature? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Even though she might have taken notes (about actual occurrences) and involved the Balandas and the Aboriginals in as much dialogue as possible, all these are stored in her memory and only retrieved during the time of writing the book. Furthermore, Jordan states that she chooses what to write about based on how she could interpret those facts, how interesting the events were to her and how the events shaped and fitted into her story (Jordan 2005, p. vii). From this confession, the reader concludes that JordanÃ¢â¬â¢s works are based on two things; what she could remember and how it fit into the story she wanted to tell. As such the reader concludes that JordanÃ¢â¬â¢s historical representation is based on memory and that this is intended at fulfilling JordanÃ¢â¬â¢s present need to retell her story. Why say that JordanÃ¢â¬â¢s works are an imaginative reconstruction of memorable facts? There are a number of aspects in this book that are purely fictional. Jordan has deliberately made them so, for a number of reasons. In the story, all the characters are based on real people from Arnhem Land. However, Jordan out of her ne ed to protect the real identities of the real characters she uses Ã¢â¬Å"changes their names, and also blended them with her story, stripped them back and changed them completelyÃ¢â¬ (2005, p. vii). She claims that she is doing so, to successfully attain her goal of creating characters that are as similar as possible to the real people she encounters in Arnhem Land. This implies that JordanÃ¢â¬â¢s characters in this story are just an imitation of the real people that. Her story characters are therefore fictional and created from her recollection, through memory, of the real ones she encountered. In this case, thus, her idea of memory in relations to writing is to help her to recollect and recreate what she can remember so as to suit her present intensions. Another of the aspect of fictionalization of her works is seen in the very first line of her book. At the beginning of Chapter One, Jordan claims that Ã¢â¬Å"just after the small town along dirt road that is otherwise seen as the highway, the Aboriginal world beginsÃ¢â¬ (2005, p.1). This is fictional since she implies that the beginning of the aboriginal world is limited to small geographical location. In the real sense the Aborigines have a rich history which cannot be limited to a singular location, especially one that has a physical dimension. This limitation is work of the limited understanding of human memory. Yet through her memory she imaginatively recreates a fictional Aboriginal past.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Memory in relation to Jordan, Mary EllenÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Balanda: My Year in Arnhem LandÃ¢â¬ specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Despite the fact that JordanÃ¢â¬â¢s idea of memory in writing can be termed as an imaginative work that helps to reconstruct the past, it heavily relies on historical facts. As such Jordan memory draws a lot of inspiration from real life facts that happened in Arnhem Land. Therefore, JordanÃ¢â¬â¢s writing memory is a reservoir of historical facts (Larson 2007, p. 35). It is a rich field within which lie innumerable artifacts, all of which have been stored there through memorization. As such her memory acts as a treasure house, rich in valuable historical artifacts. Such treasures can only be retrieved through a process of remembering. Jordan uses her memory to retrieve to the reader valuable factual information about the intricate Aboriginal-Balanda relationship, the aboriginal culture as well as the way of life and the various meanings of various symbols that do exist within the Aboriginal world. Through her memory the reader can be able to see the Aboriginal lifestyle as depicted through certain features such as their utilitarian houses. The reader is also able to see that the dilapidated nature of their life depicted by the waste and dirt spread all over in some places such as the school and the art centre (Jordan 2005, p, 8, 13 and 14). JordanÃ¢â¬â¢s nar ration recollects her experiences of her life with the Aborigine in a span of just one year. As such she only recollects her memories about life in Arnhem Land from one strategic point; her own experiences are limited to a very short period of time. Larson (2007, p. 67) explains that when writers recollect small and minute bits of their past from one strategic location, they act like archeologists. This means for Jordan to tell her story she has to go, through memory, into her past and excavate as much detail as she can regarding her own experiences. Like an archeologist, Jordan exposes to the reader small bits of her recollection, one at a time, and tries to piece all them into a final and complete story. Jordan does this without laboring too much, yet maintaining her involvement in the whole process. She keeps the reader active by narrating in first person point of view, a style that asserts more claim to the assertion that she behaves like an archeologist. Within the book Balanda : My Year in Arnhem Land, the reader is able to identify two aspect of time: the present and the past (Larson 2007, p. 31). Within the book, the present exists now and the readers can be able to experience it. The present is depicted in the context in which Jordan narrates her story.Advertising Looking for essay on american literature? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The past is depicted in the artifacts that Jordan exhumes and narrates: she narrates them in past tense. There is a missing link between these two aspects of time. There is no connection between the present and the past. However, the author tries to bring the past to bear on the present through memory. Thus, as Cixous (1997, p. 33) argues, memory makes the things past to become meaningful on the present time. Cixous (1997, p. 33) asserts that memory is the Ã¢â¬Å"present of the things pastÃ¢â¬ as such the writer who relies on memory tries to make the past have meaning in the present circumstances. Since the writer cannot re-live the past in any other way, then memory becomes the only vehicle through which the writer goes back in time and recollects what happened there. Jordan makes her past experiences bear on the present by reciting to the reader her own past experiences of her life in Arnhem Land. The author remembers some useful facts about her experiences such as the aborigin al form of English, their form of lifestyle, the strained but tolerable relationship between the Balandas and the Aborigines and in her own words makes them relevant to the present time (2005). Jordan thus sees memory as a bridge between the past and the present, a bridge that not only makes the past known but adds meaning to it and makes it relevant to the present. Jordan goes to Arnhem Land willing to serve the aboriginal but at the end of it all, she discovered that their culture runs deep and is un-transformable. Instead of transforming the Aborigines, in her words, she explains that instead her cultures are transformed (2005, p. 3). Jordan narrates her cultural transformation experience through a recollection of memorable events. Through out the story the reader sees Jordan slowly change her attitude towards the aboriginal way of life. The changes are evident in so many memorable events such as when she visits the art centre. The place is strewn with dirt (the word dirt is init ially used in the novel to depict her un-approving attitudes about Aborigines, but is eventually dropped from her choice of words as the story progresses). Initially she used to notice the litter strewn all over but with time she becomes oblivious of it. This is a signification of the fact that she has involuntarily imbibed new attitudes, attitudes that made her ignore things she could not. So much is her transformation that at the end of the novel when she recollects feelings of the time she is about to leave for Melbourne, she claims that it had been a pleasurable experience living alongside another culture. She also recollects that as she was preparing to leave this land she had Ã¢â¬Å"packed her Maningrida life awayÃ¢â¬ meaning that she had already adopted ManingridaÃ¢â¬â¢s way of life (Jordan 2005, p. 212). Larson (2007, p. 164, 165) explains that in this manner, memory is a depiction of a world that a person inherits. Through these memorable narrations, Jordan is able to narrate to us a world in which she had inherited: the art, the culture the language and the attitudes of the aboriginals. Jordan work is an exhibition of memory at work. This assertion is further enhanced by the fact that she confesses that she selectively chooses what to write. As such her story relies heavily on recall of her past experiences. Jordan uses memory effectively in combination with imagination to recreate her past experience in the land of Arnhem. Through this creative memory the reader is able to see her life as it was in Arnhem Land. That Jordan relies on memory does not mean that her work has lost any artistic appeal to the reader. On the contrary, it is within the use of this combination that her book gains the artistic appeal. So powerful, is the power of memory that she is able to recreate even the minute detail about her experiences. Even though the events of this story are a re-creation of the author, the power of memory is so powerful that through it the reade r can identify the subtle nuances on the meaning of life to the Aboriginal and the Balandas. Reference List Cixous, H. 1997. Rootprints: Memory and Life Writing. New York: Routledge, 33. Jordan, M. 2005. Balanda: My Year In Arnhem Land. Sydney: Allen Unwin, vii Ã¢â¬â 212. Larson, T. 2007. The memoir and the memoirist: Reading and writing personal narrative. Athens, OH: Swallow Press, 35 Ã¢â¬â 167.
Monday, March 2, 2020
Understanding the Big-Bang Theory The big-bang theory is the dominant theory of the origin of the universe. In essence, this theory states that the universe began from an initial point or singularity, which has expanded over billions of years to form the universe as we now know it. Early Expanding Universe Findings In 1922, a Russian cosmologist and mathematician named Alexander Friedman found that solutions to Albert Einsteins general relativity field equations resulted in an expanding universe. As a believer in a static, eternal universe, Einstein added a cosmological constant to his equations, correcting for this error and thus eliminating the expansion. He would later call this the biggest blunder of his life. Actually, there was already observational evidence in support of an expanding universe. In 1912, American astronomer Vesto Slipher observed a spiral galaxy- considered a spiral nebula at the time, since astronomers didnt yet know that there were galaxies beyond the Milky Way- and recorded its redshift, the shift of a light source shift toward the red end of the light spectrum. He observed that all such nebula were traveling away from the Earth. These results were quite controversial at the time, and their full implications were not considered. In 1924, astronomer Edwin Hubble was able to measure the distance to these nebula and discovered that they were so far away that they were not actually part of the Milky Way. He had discovered that the Milky Way was only one of many galaxies and that these nebulae were actually galaxies in their own right. Birth of the Big Bang In 1927, Roman Catholic priest and physicist Georges Lemaitre independently calculated the Friedman solution and again suggested that the universe must be expanding. This theory was supported by Hubble when, in 1929, he found that there was a correlation between the distance of the galaxies and the amount of redshift in that galaxys light. The distant galaxies were moving away faster, which was exactly what was predicted by Lemaitres solutions. In 1931, Lemaitre went further with his predictions, extrapolating backward in time find that the matter of the universe would reach an infinite density and temperature at a finite time in the past. This meant the universe must have begun in an incredibly small, dense point of matter, called a primeval atom. The fact that Lemaitre was a Roman Catholic priest concerned some, as he was putting forth a theory that presented a definite moment of creation to the universe. In the 1920s and 1930s, most physicists- like Einstein- were inclined to believe that the universe had always existed. In essence, the big-bang theory was seen as too religious by many people. Big Bang vs. Steady State While several theories were presented for a time, it was really only Fred Hoyles steady-state theory that provided any real competition for Lemaitres theory. It was, ironically, Hoyle who coined the phrase Big Bang during a 1950s radio broadcast, intending it as a derisive term for Lemaitres theory. The steady-state theory predicted that new matter was created such that the density and temperature of the universe remained constant over time, even while the universe was expanding. Hoyle also predicted that denser elements were formed from hydrogen and helium through the process of stellar nucleosynthesis, which, unlike the steady-state theory, has proved to be accurate. George Gamow- one of Friedmans pupils- was the major advocate of the big-bang theory. Together with colleagues Ralph Alpher and Robert Herman, he predicted the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, which is radiation that should exist throughout the universe as a remnant of the Big Bang. As atoms began to form during the recombination era, they allowed microwave radiation (a form of light) to travel through the universe, and Gamow predicted that this microwave radiation would still be observable today. The debate continued until 1965 when Arno Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson stumbled upon the CMB while working for Bell Telephone Laboratories. Their Dicke radiometer, used for radio astronomy and satellite communications, picked up a 3.5 K temperature (a close match to Alpher and Hermans prediction of 5 K). Throughout the late 1960s and early 1970s, some proponents of steady-state physics attempted to explain this finding while still denying the big-bang theory, but by the end of the decade, it was clear that the CMB radiation had no other plausible explanation. Penzias and Wilson received the 1978 Nobel Prize in physics for this discovery. Cosmic Inflation Certain concerns, however, remained regarding the big-bang theory. One of these was the problem of homogeneity. Scientists asked: Why does the universe look identical, in terms of energy, regardless of which direction one looks? The big-bang theory does not give the early universe time to reach thermal equilibrium, so there should be differences in energy throughout the universe. In 1980, American physicist Alan Guth formally proposed inflation theory to resolve this and other problems. This theory says that in the early moments following the Big Bang, there was an extremely rapid expansion of the nascent universe driven by negative-pressure vacuum energy (which may be in some way related to current theories of dark energy). Alternatively, inflation theories, similar in concept but with slightly different details have been put forward by others in the years since. The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) program by NASA, which began in 2001, has provided evidence that strongly supports an inflation period in the early universe. This evidence is especially strong in the three-year data released in 2006, though there are still some minor inconsistencies with theory. The 2006 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to John C. Mather and George Smoot, two key workers on the WMAP project. Existing Controversies While the Big Bang theory is accepted by the vast majority of physicists, there are still some minor questions concerning it. Most importantly, however, are the questions which the theory cannot even attempt to answer: What existed before the Big Bang?What caused the Big Bang?Is our universe the only one? The answers to these questions may well exist beyond the realm of physics, but theyre fascinating nonetheless, and answers such as the multiverse hypothesis provide an intriguing area of speculation for scientists and non-scientists alike. Other Names for the Big Bang When Lemaitre originally proposed his observation about the early universe, he called this early state of the universe the primeval atom. Years later, George Gamow would apply the name ylem for it. It has also been called the primordial atom or even the cosmic egg.
Friday, February 14, 2020
Social Function of Art - Essay Example The Art functions in two ways. First is Non Motivated function of Art and the second is Motivated function of Art.Non Motivated function of the art serves no specific purpose and utility. As Aristotle defines it, imitation is one instinct of human nature, therefore creativity is human instinct and it by no means has motivated purpose. Experience of mystics, expression of imagination and universal communication all these are the examples of aesthetic attributes of an individual, there is no reasoning and logic but are meant solely for pleasure. Motivated function of the art, on the other hand, refers to the intentional and conscious actions on the part of the artist. It could be to communicate major social change, political view and specific emotions. Art is a source of entertainment and communication. The nineteenth century saw new developments in the art forms. The three major movements in the art form in this century were-Neoclassicism, Romanticism and Impressionism. As discussed e arlier, art is the expression of change or response to the change in the society. The world was going through rapid urbanization during this era and various art movements are the reflection of the way world responded to the change. For instance, the Neoclassicism was the intellectual movement that was inspired by the of Classicists of Greece and Rome. The art of this movement is identified by its idealized form and stable composition. The artists recognised themselves above other members of the society as pathfindersÃ¢â¬â¢ .